History of the Telephone Number: All-Number Calling

As discussed in the first part ("History of the Telephone Number: Early Years") of this series, telephone numbers through the first half of the twentieth century used the 2L-5N system (two letters and five numbers). The two letters of the telephone numbers corresponded to a memorable word, such as BUtterfield or ANdrew. As demand grew following World War II, however, limitations in this system quickly became apparent. The numeral 1 was reserved for long-distance dialing, and 0 was reserved for the operator. Several combinations, such as 57 and 97, were unusable because it was impossible to make a corresponding word.

The Bell System split some area codes to allow reuse of numbers, which worked for a time - only two new area codes were added between 1962 and 1981. Nonetheless, in 1958, AT&T began the slow transition to all-number calling (ANC), gradually replacing the letters with numbers. All-number calling was first implemented in smaller communities; Wichita Falls, Texas, was the first to complete the conversion in 1958.

AT&T used a three-stage process to ease the transition. At first, telephone directories printed the full word associated with the exchange; e.g., BUtterfield 5-6861. In phase one, the letter exchange was printed without the associated word: BU 5-6861. In phase two, those still using five or fewer digits were brought up to seven. In the third, printed directories showed only the seven-digit number: 285-6861.

By 1965, all new phone numbers conformed to all-number calling, but the nationwide transition lasted well into the early 80s. Opposition was strong in some larger cities; groups, such as San Francisco's Anti Digit Dialing League, organized against the new system. Some people considered their ROckwell or WHitney letter exchange as part of their identity, or at the least useful in identifying where a caller was located. Newspaper editorials were written protesting the change, and at least one protest song was recorded, in 1966. New York City did not convert fully to ANC until 1978, and one Philadelphia directory still listed alphanumeric prefixes as late as 1983.

Interestingly, the use of the 555 prefix in movies and television began in this area, originally as KLondike 5. The 555 prefix was reserved for the telephone company, and generally used only for directory assistance (555-1212). Movie and television writers began using it as a way to avoid generating any unwanted calls to an existing number (as famously happened with the 1982 song, "867-5309/Jenny").

About the series: "History of the Telephone" is for those businesses and individuals who are interested in a vanity number and the benefits one may provide. A vanity number, such as the ones found at PhoneNumberGuy.com, makes it easy for potential and current clients to remember you. You can find the perfect vanity number for you in nearly every U.S. area code at PhoneNumberGuy.com.


When your establishment is looking into investing in a reliable and capable phone service, it comes down to two basic options; SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) and PRI (Primary Rate Interface). Both are meant to allow your business to make multiple calls over a line. The differences between the two solutions can be found in the way in which both operate and relay data.

(SIP) Session Initiating Protocol

SIP essentially works on a virtual level and runs on the network that a company already has in place and uses that network to control and relay multimedia communications. Because SIP only truly requires an internet connection, it typically costs less than PRI. Most popular usage of Session Initiation Protocol is SIP Trunking which allows a business to make simultaneous VoIP calls, instant messaging over IP networks, and video conferencing. The speed of your SIP trunk all depends on the strength and the capacity of the network service provider as well as the amount of bandwidth available at the time the communications session took place. It's also important to keep in mind that when a SIP path is not in use, the bandwidth that it would have used to relay data is freed up.

Another thing to keep in mind is that SIP connections are sold per path and can be done in any increments. Installation and implementation can also be accomplished in a matter of hours to a few days, therefore, barely causing any sort of hindrance to the operations of your business.

SIP utilizes DID (Direct Inward Dialing) phone numbers that can be local or out of area phone numbers which is definite plus because it helps cut long distance costs. This also comes in handy when a business has multiple locations and would prefer to have all their numbers stay the same regardless of the location of the office.

(PRI) Primary Rate Interface

PRI, on the other hand, is not run on a virtual level like SIP. It works with a single, physical phone line connecting to a business's telephony system, and because PRI is a physical phone line it requires a more rigorous and expensive installation. With PRI, you can typically purchase a line that allows a total of 23 simultaneous call paths. This restrictive number of call paths can cause some issues because it requires businesses to plan ahead of time. If, in the future, your business needs more call paths, a new PRI connection is needed with a whole new set of 23 call paths.

PRI can also utilizes DID phone numbers like SIP. However, these DID phone numbers are only local to the area the service.

..And the winner is..

PRI is the traditional option. It used to be the go to solution for businesses. And even to this day plenty of businesses still use PRI. However, SIP offers more wiggle room, more customization, more opportunities to communicate, is relatively cheaper, and overall offers better quality communication. It is also growing in popularity now because of all the benefits it offers over PRI.

SIP is the winner!

Features of a Good Headset

Millions of people all over the world communicate with one another everyday either through phone calls, chats, mails or any other means. Communication or phone calls is best enjoyed when both the sender and the receiver can hear themselves clearly, without missing out on any important information. These days, with the increase in call rates from network providers, there is need to look for a cheaper alternative that will save cost while you have the chance to talk more as well.

Wireless bluetooth headset
The voice over internet protocol also known as VOIP is gaining popularity as a cheaper alternative to communicate through voice calls. Depending on your service provider, you can make calls using your computer and mobile devices, hooked on broadband or 3G services. It is very easy and convenient to explore the VOIP options to make calls, but to make it easier and more interesting and clearer, you would need a headset. You probably would not enjoy repeating yourself when the other person you are talking to does not hear you clearly that is why you need the headset to break those barriers.

It is true that for making use of the VOIP, you can employ other peripheral devices you get from the market. But the good thing about the VOIP headsets is that it makes communication clearer. You can use VoIP codecs to change the analog signals to digital with the VOIP headset and it does not matter the type of device you use, whether a computer or telephone set. It is a wise choice to use the headset on your device when communicating through the VOIP. The digital headset breaks the signal into packets and send them in the same manner across the VOIP just like what your telephone set would do.

Things to consider before buying a headset

Comfort and duration of use

The amount of time you would be using the headset matters a great deal. For people working as customer service agents, of course you know that would be the first thing they would look out for. How comfortable it is in terms of the sound, grip on the ear and how well it fits the ears. You know for sure that you may likely feel some itching and discomfort when you use a headset that is not comfortable or that does not fit well on the ear.

Ear buds or Earpieces

The choice is yours. Everyone knows what works best for them. Some people may be more comfortable in using the ear bud while others the earpieces. It all depends on what you want and what works best for you.

Length and style of the mic

The length of the mic is also a feature that you should take note of. Is it strong enough, do you speak into it easily and is it well positioned? All these features are what you look at for before purchasing your headset.

In all ensure you test the device and make sure it is in good shape. Also watch out for the sound clarity. If it is clear enough for you, those are the things you should consider before getting a headset. Visit Headsetzone or check http://www.headsetzone.com.

CISSP and Its Features

The Certified Information Technology Security Systems Professional (CISSP) examination is administered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium or (ISC) 2, a worldwide nonprofit organization devoted to education and credentialing in information technology security. The examination process has been in operation since 1994, and makes use of a 6-hour test that consisted of multiple choice questions until 2014. In the 2014 examination, "advanced innovative" questions were introduced, which may have more than one correct answer. The examination is 6 hours in duration and has 250 questions yielding 1000 possible points, on which a score of 700 or greater is needed to pass.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional
The exam is given at numerous Pearson VUE testing centers and can be taken in Korean, Japanese, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German and Simplified Chinese as well as English. The examination fee is $599 US or its equivalent as of 2015. The examination seeks to test knowledge of 8 domains of the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) which have been codified since 1992. These are software development security, security operations, assessment and testing of security, identity and access management, communication security, security engineering, asset security and risk management. This was done with the traditional multiple choice questions prior to 2014, but the present and future examinations also include "drag and drop" questions, in which the candidate is asked to select answers from one column and drag them to another column, as well as "hot spot" questions, such as those in which the candidate indicates a particular place in a schematic or diagram as the answer.

These new questions are intended to cover wider areas than can be done with standard examination questions, measure a broader range of IT security abilities, test more than the traditional cognitive processes and more accurate replicate the in-the-field experience of IT security. The (ISC)2 has suggested that appropriate candidates for the examination include network architects, security architects and auditors, security directors, IT managers and corporate information security officers, security systems engineers and managers and analysts and consultants working in the field of IT security. The CBK tested in the examination is described in a number of publications and websites, and a revise of the CBK can be obtained from the (ISC) 2. This organization also publishes an outline of the examination, and operates an official training seminar.

Many books and websites offer information useful for CISSP preparation, "boot camps" are available for intensive review prior to the examination and courses are offered by educational institutions and at meetings related to IT security.

CISSP and Your Paycheck

The SANS Institute estimated in 2005 that IT professionals with CISSP certification were not only paid more than those with only a bachelor's degree but also earned more than IT professionals with other certifications. Certification magazine has estimated from survey data that achievement of CISSP certification results in a pay increase of 5 to 30 per cent.

CISSP® - Certified Information Systems Security Professional
CISSP® - Certified Information Systems Security Professional
PayScale.com has reported on the basis of a survey of some 4000 individuals in the IT field in 2015 that the salary range for an information security analyst was $59,000-117,000.00, while information security managers made between $79,000 and $139,000.00. The range for security architects was $91,000-154,000.00, and for information security officers $68,000-142,000.00. Salaries ranged from $68,000-132,000.00 for security engineers.

The same survey suggested that the average salary for web designers was $28,000-73,000.00. Base salaries ranged from $30,000-68,000.00, and bonuses from zero to approximately $5,000.00. Profit-sharing also varied widely with company of employment, from a low of $493.16 to a high just under $10,000.00. Commissions varied from zero to almost $5,000.00. Individuals with CISSP certification in architecture averaged $136,000.00 a year in 2009, according to Certification, while the average salary for those with the CISSP-ISM credential in management was $134,000.00 a year.

Network administrators have a wide range of responsibility and seniority, and work in a variety of business and institutional settings; consequently their annual compensation has a wide range. The Infosec Institute estimates that the median salary for network administrators is approximately $85,000.00 per year, although starting out in desktop support may bring as little as $30,000.00 per year. This same institution estimates that lead network administrators with wide-ranging responsibilities can make up to $120,000.00 annually, and that specialists in specific operating systems start at higher salaries and are likely to be better paid. Linux network administrators were estimated to earn $73,000.00, while Cisco network administrators commanded $85,000.00 and network administrators with EMC2 earned around $92,000.00 annually.

CISSP-credentialed network architects can look forward to a six-figure income, averaging $108,000.00 according to Pay-Scale. Salaries in 2014-2015 were estimated at $77,000 to approximately $153,000.00 a year, with bonuses as high as $20,000.00 and a profit-sharing range of $1,500.00-22,000.00. Nearly all network architects reported generous medical, dental and other benefits, and not surprisingly, network architects surveyed by Pay-Scale were highly satisfied with their compensation.

In all these surveys of CISSP professionals, major determinants of salary and benefits were experience, seniority and location. IT professionals in major metropolitan areas or places with high concentrations of businesses and institutions with substantial IT security requirements were more readily employed and generously compensated, and expertise in multiple operating systems or CISSP certification in sub-specialty areas as well as longer duration of experience and employment did much better in salary. It is generally agreed that a CISSP credential can result in better compensation at work, and it may well also contribute to greater job security.

*CISSP® - Certified Information Systems Security Professional

Home Solutions to Clean an Inkjet Coder Printer Head

We all are familiar with those ungainly streaks and blotches that tend to ruin our print-outs and drain precious printing fluids. A clogged or dried-up printer head is to be blamed for all your plights. The 'cleaner' software in your inkjet coder helps solve this problem to some extent. However, do not worry if it fails to clear the blockage. There are always some hacks in life so try a few easy methods to physically clean your printer and resume ink-flow.

However, before we get into the cleaning procedure, here are the causes of clogging that you must know.

When you leave your inkjet coder unused for a considerably long time, the ink dries up inside the print head's nozzles, and the hardened mass of dyes and pigments block the extremely narrow ink passageways. This disrupts the ink-flow, causing changes in drop trajectory, ultimately leading to its complete failure.

Steps to Clear Blockage:

• Inkjet coders comprise of removable print heads. In order to eliminate the blockage, first you will have to manually take out the print head from the ink cartridges. Keep the cartridges inside a sealable plastic bag for the entire span of the cleaning procedure. Make sure to keep them in an upright position.

• Now you will have to soak the printer head in a solution of ammonia and distilled water. The solution should have a lukewarm temperature. Take a shallow pan and place a couple of paper towels at its bottom. The padding will prevent the parts from getting damaged. Make sure that there is at least half an inch of liquid at the bottom of the pan. Soak them for at least three to four hours.

• After you place the printer head into the solution, you will see some of the dried ink coming out. To ensure that all of its parts get completely immersed into the solution, move the print head in different directions. Give it a gentle shake, too. All these will help clear the ink blockages.

• Alternately you can rinse the unit thoroughly under running water. This will help clear the ink build-up. Use warm water for better results.

• Now, consult the 'Printer Head Alignment' section in the manual to complete the insertion.

• Run the usual cleaning cycle before you start using it once again.

Next time, when the inkjet coder print head gets clogged, resolve the problem on your own at minimum cost. As a preventive measure, regularly print a page or two at least once a week to keep the print heads clear.

Luca Edward Brown is a professional writer and blogger having many years of experience in these respective fields. He loves spending his time in doing research on different topics and thus he prefers sharing his innovative ideas with his readers through writing articles and blogs.

4G Mobile Technologies Demystified

Until recently, we have witnessed the evolution of mobile technologies from the radio frequency technologies right up to the 3G technologies that are currently making waves all around the world. A new technology has now come to us, 4G mobile technology. This technology is nothing but a new technology for the next generation of mobile phones. It was made available commercially in the USA from the year 2009. But, in India it is a relatively new wave that has not yet reached a crescendo. In India, right now we are in the midst of the 3G wave of mobile technology.

To simplify matters, 4G refers to the fourth generation of mobile technologies. We have got to this stage due to the evolution of technology from its primitive 1G version, through to 4G technology. In other words, 3G mobile technology covers the carrying of data in its digital formats. This activity leads to enhanced information services like websites in their original formats, etc.. The famous Apple iPhone is a silent testimony to the success of 3G mobile technology. Although we have not reached there yet, the 4G mobile technologies are the next wave of improvisation in mobile technology.

This technology has not yet established itself, and it does not have any agreed set of standards and rules, not to talk of protocols. However, it is sure to revolutionize the way people use the internet on their mobile phones. This technology is not yet fully defined, and so it cannot be said to be totally discovered. This new technology involves enhanced security features since data transfer is increasingly being done through fiber optic cable networks, wireless networks, etc... 4G technology talks of the security measures to be provided by these enigmatic technologies.

One of the primary goals of 4G mobile technology is to minimize the blips in transmission when devices are taken from one area to another. Another goal of this new technology is to leverage the power of IP networks for increased safety and security of the data that is being transferred through a fibre optic cable network. If 3G made e-commerce a reality, then 4G will make uninterrupted internet access a reality for all and sundry. The USA uses 4G technologies in two ways- WiMAX technology, and the other is Long Term Evolution or LTE technology.

4G technology is primarily used for data and voice transfer over the internet and fibre optic cable networks. Customers who have a strong 4G network in their homes can use it to access high-speed internet access through Wi-Fi networks that are built into routers and switches. This facility does not need the use of cables for data and voice transfer. Unobstructed Internet access, through external networks apart from those being offered by coffee shops, airports and libraries will be made a reality, thanks to the advent of 4G networks.

An aspiring pmp professional who is a graduate in civil engineering and has experience and qualifications on the commercial side of engineering, seeks to express his opinions and views based on his experience of the world.

Apart from being a full time worker in the construction industry, he is also a freelance writer who writes for blogs and websites.

Currently he is working for private clients as a freelance content writer. His rich language skills and superior grammar are a showcase for all other technical people.

The Growing Trend in Used Cell Phones

Cell phones and smartphones are part of the leading edge of technologies that change on a rapid basis. What was new and advanced one year is quickly left in the dust as brand new features and advances grab the attention of the public.

However, not everyone can afford to keep up with the latest trends and many people want a good, reliable cell phone that works for their needs. So, it's little wonder that there is a vast market for used phones that millions of people are purchasing at a fraction of the cost compared to new ones.

There are a number of reasons why you'll find so many people purchasing used devices beyond the fact that they cost less than new ones.

Relevance: Although it may seem that the technology is outdated, the truth is that they can remain operational and relevant for several years assuming that their programming is updated accordingly. Just like computers and laptops can remain relevant with new operating systems so too can cell phones.

Durability: Thanks to the materials used in constructing the outside casing as well as the improved electronics inside, these will last for several years of normal use. This means that used phones can be upgraded and stay functional at a fraction of the cost compared to purchasing a new phone every year.

Carriers: In addition to the traditional carriers, there are a number of new companies that offer low priced services that work well with used devices owners. Companies like ACN, Flash Wireless and FreedomPop offer excellent services for a low price that has attracted many users. FreedomPop for example offers free mobile phone and high speed internet service that has attracted quite a few customers.

As part of the trend with used cell phones, there have been companies that specialize in purchasing and restoring older devices so that they are compatible with new technology. They may not have the speed and all the features, but they are generally quite good and most people may not even notice the difference. This certainly bodes well for the increasing trend of older cell phones as they take up more of the marketplace.

The used cell industry is rapidly growing and is expected to expand at a very high rate in the coming years. This is due to the increase costs and life expectancy of these devices. Many carriers are now providing options for customers to bring their own devices and pay a lower monthly rate which is increasing the market for used devices.

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