Belly Button Rings Are Just One Way To Show Off Your Body

If you have a good body, don't be afraid to flaunt it! Here are some tips to use jewelry such as belly button rings to highlight your best areas.

Most of us have a combination of good and bad features. Some features we want people to notice and some we would prefer not. It is easy to find a ton of fashion tips on how to use clothing to hide extra weight or emphasize your long legs. Here are some tips to use jewelry in a similar fashion.

If you are blessed with (or have worked hard to get) flat abs, then belly button rings or waist chain is the perfect accessory to highlight this area of your body. If you are someone that lives in a bikini during the summer and you enjoy being out in the sun, then it can become part of your every day attire. There is no better way to show off your belly button rings than by wearing a bikini.

I have my father's ears and nose. They are two places I prefer not to draw people's attention. I will never get a nose ring. I do have pierced ears but I won't be putting jewels all the way up my very long ears. It is personal preference but I think these two areas are best pierced when you have a petite (or cute) nose and ears. As always, it is what you are most comfortable with and what you want people to notice about you first.

If you have beautiful feet, you will want to start with shoes that show them off. Adding an ankle bracelet or toe ring can only enhance the look and cause people to notice your feet even more. Again, my size 10 feet should maybe keep me from sporting this type of jewelry but I have been known to wear them from time to time.

If you have lovely hands and small wrists, then rings and bracelets are your friend. In particular, if you have toned upper arms (most women don't), this is an area to be proud of and show off with a bracelet.

From belly button rings to upper arm bracelets, think about how you can highlight your best features with jewelry.

Why Studying Geography Is Important

Geography is an often misunderstood subject, it focuses on developing skills beyond just knowing where individual countries and regions are, in fact Geography is the study of Earth, and our relationship to it.

This can lead to understanding more about our relationship with the environment, and the causes and effects of this relationship. We can discover how we can solve many of the ongoing problems we face today, like stabilizing both negative or high population growth, to creating more people- friendly and sustainable environments.

Building an understanding of the World around us, can help us create a better World, that can overcome the current issues we face today like Global warming, whilst help us understand how to bridge cultural and national misconceptions which can often lead to conflict. Students who study Geography can develop a better understanding on how our natural world works.

The future employment opportunities linked to this knowledge are immense, people can work in development work especially relating to the environment, or become enter the World of Science doing Geographical research on phenomena like Volcanic activity, Tsunami's, and how we can discover and use the natural resources around us more efficiently without harming our natural environment.

According to data provided by the United Nations, the changes in weather patterns and the increase in populations in many areas of our World, are leading to a probable water crisis. The knowledge of how to manage our water resources are an important part of studying Geography, and helps teams of professionals who can access and implement solutions to our worsening water crisis.

Food security, and the ways we can nurture and work with Mother Nature to ensure future generations in our communities can have a more diverse and sustainable food supply, is another component of studying Geography, which helps produce more experts, who are needed in a World where many places still depend on outside sources of food.

Understanding the causes behind conflicts between countries is one part of Geography, because its often based on the lack of or the poor management of resources. Poor resource management, can affect many regions in the World, creating bad harvests, leading to hunger and sometimes even conflict between countries for the vital resources needed to sustain their populations.

Conflict resolution is a far better option than allowing countries to fall into protracted, and destructive wars over the resources needed to sustain their own population. This is one problem, where people knowledgeable about both human & physical Geography could help to stop.

A student today who gains a good knowledge of Geography, could tomorrow become an expert on renewable energies, city and town planning, resource management and sustainable agriculture. Given the immense problems many communities face today, these are skills needed for the future.

Understanding where countries and regions are is important, but Geography is about caring and working with our World, despite the differences every community has with its physical Geography, and cultural perceptions of the outside World. So if you really want to make a difference, or build a future career, studying Geography is a step towards this direction.

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Is Your Grocery Budget Out of Control?

If we think in terms of eating healthy, not filling- up with junk food, then perhaps grocery costs are out of control. A couple with kids could go bankrupt feeding their children, especially if teenagers. We can serve them the biggest protein packed meal, and an hour or two later their starving. The cheapest items people bought in the past have become unreasonably expensive. How can we still eat right keeping within a budget?

My first suggestion is head to the nearest dollar store for many of your everyday items. I purchase a lot of my miscellaneous items there like baggies, foil wrap, laundry detergent, canned goods, cookies, shampoo, razors, and so much more. Maybe not everything is brand name, but saving around $200-$240/month makes a huge difference. Those saving can be converted into milk, lunches for kids, more meat, and some treats that currently puts our budgets totally out of whack.

I like the concept of meal plans purchasing what we will eat weekly reducing what I call fridge wastage. Part of this is my thought process in stretching meals saving money. As an example instead of purchasing chicken breasts I'll buy thighs much more economically. The greatest starter filling the belly is chicken soup incorporating lentils, carrots, celery, and served on egg noodles. Next on the menu homemade coleslaw lettuce too costly, served with dollar store dinner rolls. Then taking the thighs from the soup putting some barbeque sauce on, broil having a tasty crispy main. Sides could be potatoes, frozen peas, and baked apples for desert. The most frugal versatile protein is ground beef, meatballs, spaghetti sauce, meatloaf, chilli so many dishes. The trick is buying it in bulk keeping it economical.

Grocery saving flyers are great, but just because something is on special be sure you'll eat it. I buy specials that are within one to five dollars, but make sure it will be eaten. In the summer picking berries freezing them or making jams. As well growing vegetables in a garden also freezing them for winter when pricing goes through the roof.

As sidebar I believe technology is cutting into many aspects of our budgets including food. If we look at our monthly service provider bills, how much are we spending to get more data, multiple cellphones, and variety of other costly features? I bet if we cut back on a few of those, we would have more for groceries and eat better.

My perspective is that our dollar has no value anymore, inflation has become unreasonable, and buying just the basics including taxes is a burden on most working poor people. Regardless we all still need to live, eating is not a luxury but a necessity. Therefore to keep our grocery budget in control we need to shop smart, reduce our wastage, stretch our healthy meals, and working people should be able to eat steak monthly without hardship. Hopefully my tips above will help others to achieve those important goals. Eat well and prosper!
By Arnold Nadler

Thank God for Fishing!

I was born a city boy moved more to a rural setting almost 2 decades ago. The idea of fishing to me was for those who drove pick-up trucks, wore baseball caps, and carried a coolers of beer with them. OK that is probably true, but around 8 years ago my son wanted to learn to fish, so minus the beer and pick-up truck we took-up this sport. What we did first was hit the internet finding everything out, here is what we discovered as novice anglers.

Apparently there is an incredible amount of rods, reels, lures, and fishing lines one can use, so we needed to study what was the best for catching our local fish like bass, pike, perch, and walleye. Then we started watching fishing shows as visual tool in our quest to become proficient fishermen. Once feeling more confident and knowledgeable we headed to a specialty store picking-up the best supplies money could buy, and a fishing license. We organized our tackle box, had a pair of pliers to remove the fish, because who in their right mind would want to touch these slippery, smelly, scaly, prickly creatures. We found a spot put a worm on the hook casting out poorly for a while until we got it. Finally after an hour caught our first fish, a two-inch minnow, we were so proud of actually snagging one. It was great time for my son and me to bond together, we talked, joked, and never found ourselves disappointed or bored. The idea was we were hanging-out enjoying each other's company.

Over a period of years we found the best on land fishing holes in our area, started catching some nice size fish, and finally took the plunge learning how to remove them without damaging ourselves. There is nothing like the feeling of a bite on the line working reeling in the fish without losing it. Afterwards taking it off the hook holding it for a few minutes, admiring the sheer size of these beautiful wild creatures. In all these years we've always caught and released sending them back home to their world.

This sport is something that is exciting, relaxing, and a stress reliever enjoying just the challenge of catching the big one. Even now when my son is away for the summers, I go myself feeling at peace just being out there. Maybe one day I'll buy a boat and pick-up truck to. Who ever said you can't put the country into a city boy! Thank God for fishing it has given me some very fond memories!

Are Cute Belly Rings Worth Getting Your Navel Pierced?

Piercings beyond the usual ear ring or two can be a real fashion statement but there is such a thing as paying too high a price for fashion. My dislike of needles has caused me to steer clear of any fashion trend that requires a poke, from tattoos to body piercings. Even if you don't have my phobia, it is still a wise idea to consider the pros and cons of any body piercing. Belly rings and nose rings are fun and fashionable but are they worth the things that can go wrong?

First, read up on the procedure and risks. You'll find that your navel is one of the most delicate areas to get pierced. It is prone to infection. And it takes a relatively long time to heal -- from six months to a year. During that time, you need to be very careful to keep it clean and sterile. Avoid tight waist bands or anything that will irritate or rub the area. It is better to avoid swimming or other public water like spas unless you cover it thoroughly with a waterproof bandage. And you can't change your jewelry until it is completely healed.

You also need to be very careful to have the procedure done by a professional. Make sure you feel comfortable that the person you choose is clean and capable. There are risks of infection in the area that is pierced as well as infections spreading to other areas of your body. Read and follow the aftercare instructions religiously. And it doesn't hurt to get a tetanus shot before you proceed.

After it is completely healed, you will be able to enjoy your enhanced mid-section and show off a variety of belly rings. If you have the patience to wait for healing and are willing to take care of your piercing, this can be a fun way to accessorize your summer clothing and can indeed be a fashion statement with endless possibilities.

By Julie S. Montgomery

Who Is Making Our Roads Unsafe?

Much of my time is spent driving on highways for work, and I'm shocked to see how careless drivers have become. Where I live it is like the left hand lane is the autobahn in Germany, not the passing lane which it is meant to be. Not many drivers including myself actually go the speed limit, but if the sign reads 60 miles per hour, going 70 miles per hour is acceptable to the police. However, watching people zoom by me regularly in all-weather going 90-100 miles per hour is deplorable. The situation is if you need to switch lanes because a driver has his/her hazards on at the side, there is always someone coming-up like a rocket. When you switch they now tailgate expecting you to move faster, even though your going the 70 miles an hour. Who are the real culprits making our road unsafe... ?

The answer in all fairness is all of us, but I've noticed a few that make it that much more. Maybe this will not make me popular, it's not sexist but the truth. Ladies seem to be very impatient driving, and being on the road so much the ratio is 1-3 women speeding by me over men. I find them to be very aggressive drivers cutting people off, no consideration for others on the road, even with kids in their back seats. I get it fast busy stressful lives, but ladies really!!

Next are people from other countries, I don't blame them they have been taught to drive somewhere else, different rules of conduct when driving. Maybe it wouldn't be a bad idea making drivers education mandatory for those who immigrate here. Learning our rules of road, and not driving like they're still in their countries.

There are many amazing truck drivers out there who follow the rules, are considerate, and maintain the speed limit of 60 miles per hour. According to what I've heard where we live, they also have governors in the trucks not allowing them to go over the speed limit. However, what I don't get is those who seem to be able to speed. These folks do it in the worst weather passing fast blinding other drivers in the right lanes this is not safe for anyone driving. Also passing a truck a head of them doing 60 miles an hour at what seems 65 miles an hour makes no sense to me as well.

We all know that a vehicle is a weapon that can kill people, why are we playing the odds with ours and other people's lives. Perhaps if we leave earlier we wouldn't be in such a rush all the time, if more police were on the highways I guarantee speeds would be reduced, or simply being a responsible citizen following the laws of the road. I just think there are too many senseless deaths on the roads today that could have been avoided driving more careful. I know the insurance companies focus on men 18 to 25 who have the most accidents. That doesn't mean a huge percentage of population isn't driving as reckless, just lucky not getting injured or killed as much statistically.

Body Piercing Parlors

Body piercing parlors have become increasingly popular in recent years. Twenty five years ago it was strange to see a person with a body piercing, especially a facial piercing. Nowadays it's doubtful you don't at least a few friends with a tongue stud, nose ring or eyebrow pierced. Facial piercing is just the tip of the iceberg, people these days are getting ever more ingenious with where their getting pierced, and the kinds of body jewelry their displaying.

Have you been considering getting pierced you're probably a little scared, and have some concerns? The number one thing everyone ever wants' me to explain is how much do body piercing's' cost at body piercing parlors and why, this is a difficult question to answer because of the many variations involved. For instance, where you live can affect the price you pay, as well were you want your piercing can be a big factor? Obviously getting your ears pierced is going to be cheaper than a lip piercing.

Well everybody is different and yeah, for a couple minutes it's going to hurt, but the pain fades quickly in most cases with the exception of body piercing in more delicate area's which can be a little sore for a few days.

They've heard all the stories about a piercing a friend gave a friend that became infected or they thought was infected, so now they are a little freaked-out.

The truth is for a few days after your body piercing you will have some drainage, this is normal. If the discharge begins to change color yellow or green or thicken you should be concerned. My answer is your odds of getting an infection are remarkably lower at the boutique; backroom piercing is an infection waiting to happen and the cause of all the horror stories about piercing infections.

The next thing they always want to know is how to choose a good piercing shop? If you forget everything else I have tried to explain to you about a quality body piercing parlors you want to be sure their piercer's are professional, their workstation is hospital quality clean and their body piercing tools are sterile. For more information on body piercing parlors subscribe to our RSS feed.

Body piercing can be a really bold statement to set yourself apart from the crowd, but there are some risks. Discover the best ways to stay safe, With clean body piercings.

Third World Employment Is Here

I knew the drill. I'd lived it for years.

Don't stop at intersections, including red lights and stop signs, if you don't have to. Just keep going. Stopping makes you vulnerable to "smash and grab" and hijacking.

Keep anything of value hidden away when you're on the street. Keep your cellphone on vibrate so it doesn't attract attention.

Try to keep a wall or fence close behind or beside you so you can't be surprised from behind. Scan your environment in 180-degree arcs in five-yard increments ahead of you.

Dress like a local. Don't make eye contact unless you must, and if you do, just nod without smiling. Above all, look like you belong there... or at least like you've been there before.

Sounds like a scene from one of those "JB" spy stories... Jason Bourne, Jack Bauer, James Bond. But it's just everyday life in many parts of my second home, South Africa, where I've been for the past month.

This is the way we may be living soon here in the U.S... for essentially the same reasons.

Coming to a Country Near You: Instability

People with no stake in a socioeconomic system eventually prey on that system. It's all they have. If the world considers you superfluous and you have no future in it, why not? Especially if the bigwigs in government and business do the same thing.

Over 45% of South African adults have no formal job or do temporary piecework when they can. Millions of people depend on this slender thread for their daily survival. To keep the pot from boiling over, the government has been forced to expand an expensive system of welfare payments. The costs of not doing so - in terms of crime, policing and fleeing investors - would be even higher.

Is this life coming to the U.S.? The signs sure point to it.

A new study by economists from Harvard and Princeton says that 94% of the 10 million jobs created after the great crash of 2008 were temporary contract positions or part-time "gig" jobs. They come without health care, retirement benefits, vacation time, sick leave or employer-paid Social Security and Medicare taxes.

Fewer than 1 in 5 of these jobs ever become permanent. Consequently, as the research by economists Lawrence Katz of Harvard and Alan Krueger at Princeton shows, the proportion of U.S. workers who were working in these kinds of temporary jobs increased from 10.7% of the population to 15.8% from mid-2010.

At the same time, the workforce participation rate has declined, meaning fewer people are working - with more depending on those who are, even temporarily, to survive.

Finally, the long-term unemployment rate, which includes people who are working irregularly or who have given up looking at all, has tripled since 1990.

Crucially, this trend is just as apparent in manufacturing, the very sector President-elect Trump touts as the salvation of the American worker. Over one-third of U.S. temps work on production lines, in warehouses and repairing machinery. Another 20% work in manufacturing management.

No Easy Answers

Capitalism tends to shoot itself in the foot on a regular basis... as it is doing today by simultaneously destabilizing the majority and massively enriching a tiny minority.

The great political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Adam Smith, were keenly aware of capitalism's contradictory nature. Above all, they realized things that are good for profit-seeking individuals in the short term - like staffing your company with expendable temps - aren't always good for society in the longer term... including those same profit-seeking individuals.

When almost all jobs created over an eight-year period lack the basic features required for a stable life, workers are effectively a disposable commodity, not citizens of a country. People who know they are considered expendable tend to behave very differently from those who are secure and stable, since they have a different stake in the game... i.e., none.

As the proportion of "expendables" grows, they begin to prey on the rest. That's what I've seen in South Africa and many other countries. Those are the sorts of societies where you live behind razorwire-topped walls, don't go out at night and feel nervous and watchful always. In a word: a Third World society.

Are you ready for that? You'd better be... unless something changes, and soon.

Ted Baumann joined The Sovereign Investor Daily in 2013. As an expat who lived in South Africa for 25 years, Ted specializes in asset protection and international migration. Read more of what he has to say about offshore living here.

Various Advantages of Toll-Free Numbers

Satisfying your customers is very important when you are running a company. The success of the company doesn't always depend on how much satisfied your customers, So you need to make sure that your customers get every facility they need and they get every chance to reach you. If you run a small business or you are a market giant, what you need to have is the correct view to your business and the correct and timely approach towards your customers. Do you have a toll-free number for your business? If you do not have, then go for one!

It is thus important to know how it can enhance your business!

You will be available for your customers day and night with the help of this number. If you are running a small company then you may not afford a telephone operator. But when you are a big guy, you can easily have an operator for your help! So through this facility you will be there for your clients 24*7. This will help you to enhance your business as well! So go for a number that can make you available for your customers.

Customers like serious business persons and those people who are available at the hour of need. Suppose someone needs you for a particular purpose and you are not available at that moment! You can lose the customer if the marketing sense of your rival is better than you. It allows you to stay in touch with your customer no matter where you are, no matter which time is this and no matter what you are doing! Your dedication will pay you at the end of the day.

Suppose you are going to leave your previous office space and you are going for a bigger place or shifting somewhere else. You can easily bring your toll-free number along with you. When you buy a number from an operator, the number is yours for the rest of your life! So you can easily take the number along with you wherever you go and your customer will not even know from where you are operating! You only need to divert the call to your present area or to your mobile and you are done!

Easy to remember:
It is true that we are losing the power of remembering numbers with the advent of mobile phones. We do not require remembering the number, so we do not do that even! But if you logically think, then the initial numbers of a toll-free number is fixed. So you need to remember the extensions only and it is quite easy to remember the extension numbers.

If there are so many features available that makes a toll-free number a must buy for the small concerns and the giant players too, then why don't you do it? Go for such a wonderful number and use that for the marketing of your company!

Body Piercing Places

Have you ever thought of going to one of those Body Piercing Places? Over the last twenty years, the popularity of body piercing has been renewed. A word of caution if your checking out Body Piercing Places and while their explaining how they perform body piercing, they tell you they will be using a piercing gun, You are not in a professional Body Piercing Place and you need to stay away from that shop because piercing guns can't be sterilized and your chances of developing an infection are statistically much greater.

Pierced ears or the most common, and usually the first piercing someone will get. However, trying to find the traditional one piercing per ear can be difficult. There are many other kinds of body piercing such as navel piercing, tongue piercing or the labret.

The labret is a piercing that is in the lower lip, but over the course of time, there have been many alterations to this form of piercing. The labret derives it's name from the type of jewelry worn, which is usually some kind of bead type jewelry. A couple of variations are the Vertical labret which is down through the top of the lip and out the bottom, The Lowbret is having the piercing done low on the chin, While the Medusa is placed in the upper lip between the center ridges.

When you start seriously considering Body Piercing Places, there are a couple things you want to keep in mind. Don't ever try to pierce yourself or even let a friend use one of the body piercing kits, your risk of infection is very high. The professional piercer puts their reputation on the line by doing body piercing and knows well the power of word of mouth advertising and will not risk their reputation with poor sanitary conditions.

If your unaccustomed with a Body Piercing Places watch how they interact with their customers and how they handle their equipment, the freshly sterilized tools should be kept in separate tray from the used and contaminated ones waiting to be sterilized. The use of contaminated piercing supplies has been known to cause HIV, Hepatitis are any number of serious infections.

While visiting different body piercing places look at their selection of jewelry. With a new piercing, you need to wear good quality jewelry applicable to the location of the piercing, body jewelry is intended to be worn in specific areas of the body for your comfort and ease. When you choose your jewelry pay close attention to the type of material it is made of particularly for new piercings.

Your new piercings will require some extra care in order to properly heal so if your on a budget, are just not sure which piece of body jewelry you really want, at least make sure to look for Implant grade stainless steel in your jewelry which is least likely to cause some kind of infection.

The Body Piercing Places you choose should make you feel comfortable and secure. For more information about body piercing subscribe to our rss feed at

Steven McCarthy has been studying piercing for many years, both the history as well as the practice of piercing in it's many forms. For original piercing idea's and advice on the sanitary practices, you need to take with your new piercing.

The Feds Are Inside Your Home

Even when traveling, I have an insatiable impulse to read. There are always a couple of hardcovers in my bag for transoceanic flights. On the ground, though, I read e-books on Amazon Kindle. Carrying physical copies of my typical two to three volumes per week is impractical at the best of times - more so when I'm living out of a suitcase in the African Bushveld.

Like my father, I favor history. Last week, I studied the transformation of the Roman Republic into imperial despotism and dynastic instability.

This week I'm covering the Crusades, that fascinating 12th to 13th century attempt to impose medieval European feudalism on what is now Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel.

There are many possible points of comparison. The one that jumps out at me is how often the powerful were brought low by betrayal within their own households. Roman emperors, Turkish atabegs and crusader counts regularly fell victim to assassins drawn from bodyguards, courts and even families.

At least those traitors knew what they were doing. These days, even insensible household objects can betray you...

Deadly Convenience

Mighty Amazon produces many useful things besides the Kindle software on my iPad. Amongst its big hits is Alexa, the virtual assistant built in to its Echo device. Alexa listens constantly, using an array of seven microphones, ready to hear and respond to all sorts of commands and queries, such as "What's the weather today?" or "Order some more paper towels."

Naturally, Alexa has become part of the current zeitgeist. For example, a recent episode of the brilliant hacker series Mr. Robot has a world-weary FBI agent asking Alexa philosophical bedtime questions and predictions. Alexa can only respond that "I'm working on that one, ask me a little later."

Alexa and similar Internet of Things (IoT) technologies may not be able to speculate on the mysteries of existence, but they can certainly remember everything input into them, intentionally or not.

A Nest thermostat, for example, records all automatic temperature changes and can be used to track your daily movements in fine detail as a result. Samsung's "smart" fridges monitor your food stocks as they rise, fall and change over time. Even lowly kettles can record your coffee habits.

An Arkansas man is about to cross a frightening new frontier in this rapidly evolving "smart" world... potentially taking you with him.

Good Alexa, Bad Alexa

Last week, news outlets reported that Amazon had been served with a search warrant in a murder case in Bentonville, Arkansas. Detectives want to know what Alexa heard in the early hours of November 22, 2015, when Victor Collins was found dead in a hot tub behind a home after a football game.

Alexa listens constantly, recording and transmitting conversations after a "wake word." It then transmits what it hears back to Amazon for language processing and storage, so it can improve its responses over time. Hence, the Bentonville murder unit's interest in bringing Alexa down to the station for a little chat.

The chances that Alexa woke and recorded a murder are quite small, of course. It would have to hear its "wake word" and remain in listening mode for quite a while. Amazon, to its credit, has refused to release the full transcript in this case, but it may be compelled to do so by the courts.

But Alexa isn't the main source of evidence... it's more useful to corroborate other data collected at suspect James Bates' house.

Bates had numerous IoT devices in his smart home. He had motion sensors for the lights, a Nest thermometer and a WeMo for his garage door. Crucially, he also had a smart water meter. Police have allegedly found that an unusual amount of water was used in the house late that night, perhaps to clean the victim's blood from the crime scene.

Testimony by Bates' smart home could well provide enough circumstantial evidence to send him to prison.

If I Should Die, Do This for Me: Delete My Browser History

In my last few days here in Cape Town, I'm staying with a dear old friend who's a bit of a card. He plays harmonica for living (seriously) and habitually wears a kilt, a leather jacket and a battered cowboy hat everywhere. He's also a brilliant quick wit, spouting the heading above within seconds of learning my topic today.

It's great wisdom. Don't do illegal things, of course... but just as importantly, pay attention to what's happening to the information gathered by the smart gadgets around you. Educate yourself about your options in this regard, and make choices that limit your risk. If a given device doesn't allow that, it's not worth it.

After all, in our outrageously overregulated society, we all commit approximately three federal felonies every day without knowing it. Your smart house probably will... and when the cops come asking, it'll tell them everything it knows.

Ted joined The Sovereign Investor Daily in 2013. As an expat who lived in South Africa for 25 years, Ted specializes in asset protection and international migration. Read more of what he has to say about offshore living here.

Piercing, Decorative and Protective Tools in Leatherwork

Leatherwork tools are relevant to the production of the item and largely influence its forming as well as final outlook. Therefore, a leatherwork artist must know the distinctive and usage of each of these tools especially the controversial ones such as the piercing, decorative, and protective devices.

1. Piercing Tools-
These tools are used for creating holes in leather articles before stitching or thonging. Examples of thonging tools are:

Thonging Chisel: It is used for making slits for thonging.

Snap Setter: This tool is used in punching to prevent rivet caps from getting damaged.

Thonging Punch: This tool is used for creating several holes at a time before stitching. It is also used for making and spacing slits.

Drive Punch: It is used in punching round single holes in leather.

Revolving/Rotary Punch: This is a six-way punch that rotates or revolves. Its revolving wheel is fitted with six nipples. It is used for creating holes for fixing eyelets, press-studs etc. in leather articles.

Eyelet Pliers/Setter: This tool is used for the setting and fixing of eyelets in leather articles.

Cobbler's Hammer: This hammer is used in driving nails and punches into leather items to create holes for sewing and thonging.

Awl: This tool is used for piercing holes in leather before stitching.

Mallet: It is used for driving punches into leather articles to create holes for stitching.

Pliers: It is used for steadily holding nails and pins while hammering.

Fid: This is a slim metal rod with a pointed edge fitted into wooden / plastic / rubber / fiberglass etc. inserted in a handle with a metal band to strengthen it at where the metal is fitted into the handle. It must be stored with the sharp metal point pushed into a thick rubber, wax, or soap. It must be sharpened on a whetstone, sand paper or oil stone.

Lacing Nippers: This is a handy tool that looks like pliers but is used for punching slits at areas of a leather article that cannot lie flat.

Overstitch Wheels: These tools are used to mark spacing holes especially in saddle stitching.

2. Decorative Tools-
This category of leather tools helps in improving the general appearance, hand, and attractiveness of leather articles. Examples of decorative tools used in leatherwork include:

File: This tool is used for smoothening the edges of freshly cut leather pieces by sanding.

Texturing Nail: This is a special nail with various textures or patterns on its head. It is used for stamping decorative patterns on leather articles as a form of decoration.

Modelling Tool: This tool is used for creating designs on the surfaces of leather articles.

Press stud Tool: It is used for fixing press stud fasteners.

Dresden Tool: This tool is used for creating fine modeling on leather.

Ball Tool and Flat Modeller: The ball tool is used when a high relief is required and is usually used from the underside of the leather.

Stamping tool: It is like the texturing nail. It is used for creating relief patterns on the surfaces of leather articles.

Sanding Machine: This is an electronic sanding device with sandpaper glued to it. It is used for sanding and smoothening the fleshy parts of leather.

Stippler: This device holds templates in position while they are being traced onto the leather surface.

Computer: This is a modern technological device that is used in creating varieties of designs as well as in choosing harmonious colour schemes for products in leatherwork.

Burnisher: This is an all-purpose tool used for burnishing the edge of leather as well as holes and slots.

Bone folder: This is a smooth flat but slightly rounded tool made of bone. It can also be made of aluminum metal, bamboo, rattan, wood, toughened plastic. It is used for making lines and pressing down folded edges of leather. It is also used for burnishing leather and for creating folds, pleats etc. on leather.

3. Protective Tools-
These tools ensure the protection of the individual as well as the tools and devices for leatherwork. Examples of protective tools are:

Nose Mask: It is worn on the nose to prevent the leather craftsman from inhaling toxic chemicals and dyes that are harmful to one's health.

Apron: This is worn on the body of the leather artist to prevent him from soiling or staining himself and his apparels from liquors and other colouring mediums.

Wellington Boots: These are special boots worn to protect the feet of workers in the leatherwork industries where small pins and metals could cause injury.

Hand Gloves: These are worn to protect the hands from harmful chemicals and other dangerous solvents.

Oil stone: This is a stone with oil on it used for sharpening the blades and edges of other tools in leatherwork.

Tool Box: It is a special box in which leather tools are kept for safekeeping.

If you want interesting information on visual art education, history of art click the link below:

High-End Belly Button Rings

If you have your navel pierced, you probably spend a fair bit of time shopping for new jewelry. If you're like most people, you gravitate towards the cheaper belly button rings simply because it doesn't always make sense to spend a lot of money on something so small. However, I challenge you to consider these pieces to be more like regular jewelry, and as such, look into some high-end pieces.

If you haven't actually gotten your piercing yet, you might consider purchasing a surgical steel piece as the ring you wear while your piercing heals. Implant grade steel is preferred, but most experts agree that 316-L surgical grade stainless steel is appropriate for a new piercing. Stainless steel is appreciated because it is hypoallergenic and therefore won't react with the tissues of the body to cause an allergic reaction. Choose the piece carefully as you will wear it for many months while your navel heals.

After the appropriate amount of healing time, you will be able to change out the stainless piece for something more decorative. This is the time when you might consider some of the high-end belly button rings on the market. Some metals to consider include titanium and gold. While these belly button rings are certainly more expensive than the ones you can buy at a jewelry store in the mall, you will find that they will last for years and years. There is also very little risk of allergic reaction from these metals.

If you can't afford titanium or gold, it's worth it to try and save up some money until you can afford a nicer piece. In the meantime, you might choose to leave your stainless steel piece in place since it will reduce the incidence of infection. When you can afford to buy the belly button rings that you have been saving for, you will find that your wait was worth it.

Julie enjoys sharing health and beauty tips. A great resource for flat irons, curling irons and hair styling tools of all kinds is My Hair Styling Tools.

Don't Look Now But You Have Been Hacked!

Most every home and business office now has a firewall that separates your internal computer network from the wild west of the world wide internet. The good news is that firewalls have become increasingly more sophisticated and properly configured can do an excellent job in securing your internal computer network devices. Modern firewalls now include intrusion detection and prevention, email spam filtering, website blocking and most are able to generate reports on who did what and when. They not only block evil doers from outside your network, but they police the users on the inside from accessing inappropriate resources on the outside internet. Employees can be blocked from visiting sites that can rob your business of valuable productivity time or violate some security compliance requirement. Prime business hours is really not the time to update your Facebook page! Nor do we want our medical and financial service folks using an instant messaging service to chat with and outsider!

The Firewall is the electronic equivalent of the "front door" to your computer network and there is an endless parade of potential evil doers spray painting your doors and windows, relentlessly looking for a way in. A properly configured, managed, and regularly updated Firewall can be very effective in protecting your computer network, both in the office and at home. Behind the firewall, must desktop computers and office servers have local software based firewalls installed that also provide virus protection. Hopefully if something does get past the firewall, the internal virus and desktop firewall solutions will provide an additional level of security.

Firewalls are both reasonable and appropriate but here is the bad news. Most of the hacking you now hear and read about is not done by evil doers coming through your firewall! The real damage is done by those inside your network! Malicious users and dishonest employees will always a treat. There is always the treat of the unscrupulous employee swiping credit card data or passing security information for money. The real danger, however, is from users who are just ignorant of today highly sophisticated security vulnerabilities. The most honest employee can unwittingly become the source of a major security breach resulting in the loss of their own personnel data, or the personal and financial data of your customers.

Take your average laptop user as a perfect example. How many times have you gone down to Starbucks and setup shop? Beautiful day, open air, sun and a high speed internet connection, wireless phone and it is business as usual! If I told you how easy it is to setup a "man in the middle" attack at Starbucks you would give up coffee for the rest of your life. You think you are on the Starbucks WiFi, but actually that kid in the back of the Starbucks with the Wireless Access Point attached to his USB connector, has spoofed you into thinking he is your door to the Internet. He has been monitoring every key stroke on you laptop since you logged in. In fact he now has your log in, password and most everything else on your computer. Now when you head back to the office and plug in, you just unleashed a bot on the company network and he will be back later tonight!

If laptops were not enough, everybody is now walking around with a Smartphone! Did you know that your Smartphone keeps a list of all the WiFi networks you have used recently? Remember when you were down at Starbucks checking your email while waiting for that cup of coffee? Now everywhere you go your phone is sending out a beacon request that sounds like "Starbucks WiFi are you there?" hoping it will get a response and auto connect you to the internet. Remember that kid we were just talking about? He decided to answer your beacon request with a "yeah here I am, hop on!" Just another "MITM" attack and what he can do to your Smartphone, especially those Androids makes your laptop look like Fort Knocks!

Sometimes for fun and entertainment, while sitting at a gate in an airport waiting room, I will net scan the WiFi to identify how many phones, computers and iPads are online and connected. Not saying that I would do this, but I think you could execute a Netbios attack in less the five minutes? It is amazing how many people leave their printer a network sharing options on when they travel. Even more people leave their "Network Neighborhood" settings in the default configuration! The drill is always the same: map the network to see what hosts are connected; port scan for known vulnerabilities; out the exploit tool kit and the rest is actually getting relatively boring for the ethical hacker. Now credit card thieves on the other hand...

Chances are your Internet browser is worst enemy when it comes to securing your privacy. Every website you visit, every email you send and every link you follow is being tracked by hundreds of companies. Don't believe me? If you are using Firefox, install an add in extension named DoNotTrackme and study what happens. Assuming you are an average internet surfer, in less that 72 hours you will have a list of over 100 companies that have been tracking your every move on the internet! These companies don't work for the NSA, but they do sell your "digital profile" to those willing to pay for the information. Where has your GPS been? What sites did you visit, what movies did you watch, what products did you buy, what search terms did you select - all of this dutifully reported back by you and your unsuspecting employees. Ever wonder if your competitors want to know what your viewing on line?

Voice Over IP phone systems offer an entirely new range of vulnerabilities waiting to be exploited by the unscrupulous evil doer! We recently illustrated to a client Law Firm (as a paid intrusion detection and penetration testing consultant and with the clients permission) just how easy it is to covertly switch on a conference room based speakerphone and broadcast the entire conference to a remote observer over the internet! In fact, capturing voice packets for replay is the first trick script kiddies learn in hacking school!

VoIP, Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS, RFid, file and print sharing and even the "cloud" all add up to a list of vulnerabilities that can be easily exploited. What can you do? You need to educate yourself and develop your own "best practice" for safe computing. You need to educate your employees and co-workers about the various vulnerabilities we all face every day as we become more "wired" and more Mobile. Hire a competent Computer Network Security professional to do "penetration testing" on your corporate network and firewall. It would be better to pay a professional to "hack" you, then pay to fix it after you have been hacked! Remember if we can touch your network, we will own your network!

Amazon Cloud to Back Up Your Phone System?

Did you every think that your company would be physically unavailable, the building not accessible and the phone system unmanned? The issue of business continuity and disaster recovery is on your 'to do' list and hopefully you can get to it before it gets to you. Recently, we had the experience of having to resuscitate a client from near death when their physical facility became unavailable. Clearly, the phone system was very high on the list of "must have" operational now.

Here is the solution we employed with amazing results. First, we signed in and created a brand new account at the Amazon EC2 cloud offering. This itself was an amazing experience. Once your account is open, which can take a couple of hours if you do not already have an Amazon account (is that possible?), you can create and access a server with the OS of your choice within minutes. We already had an Amazon account so adding the AWS functionality took less than 30 minutes. We then created a Microsoft 2008 SP2 32 Bit Server and provision RDP access in less time than it is taking to tell this story. The AWS service provisions and assigns a DNS public IP address, creates a security instance ('firewall") and candidly, that took more time to make operational then it took to build an "instance" of our Windows based HQ server!

Once the sever was provisioned, we were able to make "firewall" changes to meet our security requirements. This is all accomplished through the AWS management console. Then the fun started, we downloaded our favorite PBX system! All of this is taking place in the cloud and under a time constraint, but we were able to provision our PBX and get in a configuration mode very quickly. Using our preexisting ITSP SIP account we were able to provision a multi-channel SIP "peer", obtain a DID number and have dial tone in and out of the system within 15 minutes!

From then on it became near Childs play and basically the same as any other deployment. We brought up the most urgent User profiles first, established remote call forwarding and even enabled several SIP softphones. We were able to get the phone company to call forward the clients main BTN to the newly provisioned DID number and we had this client back to worrying about business issues that had nothing to do with phone service pronto quick. The entire process from account setup, to first phone call took two and a half hours to commission!

Clearly, not the carefully conceived business continuity and disaster recovery plan that should have been in place, but a success story none the less. We keep a pre-paid ITSP account available at all times which enables us to bring up 4 channel SIP peers in a heart beat. It seems we never know when we are going to need a new DID and Peer. The Amazon AWS is mind boggling in terms of what you can do and you are billed on a metered basis. Currently they have a program that bundles some 750 hours of usage a month for free. They also have some canned AMI's (Amazon Machine Images) that cost literally penny's an hour to operate.

Not that we needed another reason to have a software based VOIP iPBX but this is an example of just how powerful these tools can be to create and deliver viable telecommunications solutions on demand! AskDrVoIP and we will provide you the list of software solutions we used to accomplish this emergency deployment and we are planning to recreate the entire experience for a another DrVoIP video cheat sheet.

Visit the DrvoIP.Com site for a wealth of information and video tips on VoIP! Find technical support or post your project for Free!

Time to Re-Think Social Issues and Go Back to Financial Ones

I believe the problem we face today is people are more concerned about social issues then financial ones. We've been brainwashed in thinking more about environment, sexual preference, and from my perspective over done on being healthy. If you don't have enough cash how can you eat right, or reduce stress wouldn't that be more of a health risk? Rather then citizens going protesting for better wages, job creation, and reducing the way over taxation we fight for social issues. I am a very compassionate person, but bringing in 30,000 immigrants who don't have a shot at getting a decent well-paying job either is not prudent. It turns into more of our tax dollars to support them, while there are thousands of citizens who can't afford a place to live or food in their mouths. It just seems we have our priorities really mixed-up in these uncertain times. Here is what I mean by this statement.

Obtaining an education today means taking on serious debt, and then not being able to find a well-paying job is financial suicide. No matter what fair waged job or not our greedy government expects to be paid back. It is no concern of theirs they aren't generating job creation and taxing people into bankruptcy. It's all about giving away our tax dollars to people from other countries. The burden gets even worse here because those who can find jobs end up on welfare, or get mentally ill living on disability. The part of population going to their crappy jobs pays for those people too. What about new entrepreneurs can they still exist in this country?

The truth is Government decided to let in major corporations from other countries in, then actually investing in their own talented citizens. A corporation like Wal-mart is very hard for small Mom and Pop business to compete against. These corporations offer minimum wage which is substandard to cost of living, and no job security including set hours. They're not doing anything wrong, it is our government who sets the minimum wage, and labor board who determines what they can and can't do. Our wonderful government has also allowed them to be one stop shops. An entrepreneur wanting to open up a shoe store can't compete, dead in the water before the doors open. The government knows this, so that is why getting a business loan is almost unattainable. Just consider how many small businesses have been destroyed in smaller towns by companies like Wal-mart, and everyone buys into the trip. Better pricing but no well enough paying jobs for consumers to buy step-up quality. There has been so many horrendous financial mistakes done by our governments over the decades it's ridiculous. Free trade took away our manufacturing jobs, belonging to O.P.E.C took away low-cost fuel pricing, and now the Government taxes that even further.

Maybe we should re-think how much time, effort, and money is being thrown into social issues. How about stop taking one for the team living on credit cards to supplement our incomes. Focusing on fighting for the things that will provide our children with a bright future instead. Fair wage jobs, money, and reasonable taxation might be the first direction. Here's the truth for the majority of us no one will remember we even existed in a 100 years. Worrying about our Great Grandchildren environmentally is a smoke screen the governments and activists take away hiding real issues which is financial. Maybe it is also time to bring home the troops stopping the financial bleeding we are experiencing here. No more bringing refugees until all our ducks are in row. That means every child gets a proper education, health care, and possibility of an amazing future with our tax dollars. This also includes the right for their parents to buy homes at reasonable pricing, not purchasing a shack they can't afford because it so over priced, and then the hydro costs effect how the purchasing power for the necessities.

I am very fortunate to have a well-paying job, so this article is not about me but injustice I see everyday. I watch people taking about the environment because they can't deal with the reality of their own lives. I see our Government being so careless with our hard earn tax dollars it makes me ill. The problem is anyone like me who speaks up is considered aggressive, not caring when I do!! It's time for all us to lobby the Government to provide all of their citizens with being able to have a quality of life!

Why You Should Avoid Fake Mobile Phones

When you splash out on a new mobile phone you need to ensure that you are buying the real thing as copies and fakes simply will not last! Phones and other mobile devices should only ever be bought if they have been made by genuine companies such as Vodafone, Sony or Nokia. This way you can ensure that you get good value for money as they will come complete with guarantees and you can sure be that they have been made properly!

Check out these top reasons why you should never buy fake mobile phones:

Mobile Phones need to be Reliable!

We heavily rely on phones as part of our everyday lives from work through to casual conversations and without one we often feel somewhat lost! With over 40 million Brits owning a cell phone in the UK and more phones than people with 62.5 million handsets and only 60 million people; it is obvious that we are all mobile crazy.

Many people rely on mobile phones to stay in contact with clients or employers and those who work in sales or logistics will understand how important it is to be in regular contact. If you need to be accessible to others then you need to ensure that you have a genuine handset that will not decide to stop working just when you need it most!

Genuine Mobile Phones are Affordable!

There is no need to pay less to get less as there are so many great value for money deals available that you can buy the real thing for an affordable price. If you choose to get a contract, many companies will provide you with a free handset so why risk using a sub-standard phone that is cheap to buy that will only fall apart in a few months?

Usually batteries will need to be replaced before the phone itself and it is just as important to ensure that you buy genuine batteries as fake batteries for mobiles will be as useless as your old one after a short time.

Mobile Phones are Readily Available!

Statistics show that 57% of US teenagers view their phone as being a central part of their social lives and 80% claim that their mobile offers them a sense of security. How secure would you feel if your fake handset failed on you when you need to make an emergency call? There is no excuse to buy a fake mobile when there are so many available which are 100% genuine. You can buy mobile phones all over the world from reputable companies with ease so why settle for less with a fake?
By Louise Goldstein

A-Z on Body Arts: Tools, Materials, Techniques, Health Hazards and Prevention

Body art is an ancient but populous form of body enhancement. There are various reasons why people engage in body art such as coiffure, body painting, body markings and the like. Some are done for purely aesthetic or decorative purposes while others are for medicinal, spiritual, entertainment, identification or symbolic reasons.

A wide of tools can be used for body enhancement. These include dabbing tools, painting tools, incising tools, smearing tools, tattooing tools, etc. Materials used for body arts include tattooing dyes, special cleaning agents etc. Drawing and writing inks, such as Indian ink, Pelican ink and printer inks are popularly used for amateur tattoos. Other colourants that can be used include pigments and dyes. Other materials used include plant extracts, soot, carbon and ochre. Henna, which is a natural plant, is also used for the production of temporary tattoos.

There are several causes of health hazards in body arts. Majority of them are as a result of contamination of the instruments used. Examples of these are the skin penetrating tools such as lances, electrolysis needles and extractors. When these instruments are not effectively cleaned and sterilized before use on another person, or when single-use instruments are not discarded immediately after use.

There are also allergic and toxic reactions which are due to impurities from the production process of the pigments and dyes used for tattooing. Tattoo inks can contain aromatic amines with carcinogenic potential (can cause cancer). Some tattoo products have been seen to cause mild forms of skin cancer. Tattoo dyes especially red, green, yellow and blue dyes can cause allergic skin reactions, such as an itchy rash at the tattooed area. This can occur even years after you get the tattoo.

Moreover, skin problems such as bumps called granulomas form around tattoo ink. Tattooing also can lead to keloids or raised areas caused by an overgrowth of scar tissue. It may cause blood borne diseases. For instance, if the equipment used to create the tattoo is contaminated with infected blood, the person can contract various blood borne diseases including tetanus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C or even HIV/AIDS.

These health-related cases can be prevented by taking some practical steps. For instance, the tools and equipment used for the production of body arts must be sterilized. Washing hands is the single most important factor in preventing infection.

Also, chemicals used in body arts must be properly labeled so that there will not be any substitutions. The chemicals must be properly cared for. They must be kept in well secured containers etc. The instructions on how to use and care for them must be meticulously followed.

Moreover, all working surfaces used, for example, procedure couches/chairs, benches and tables, should be washed with warm water and detergent, rinsed and dried using a clean lint-free single-use cloth. Additionally, at the end of each working day, wash all visibly soiled surfaces with warm water and detergent. Rinse and dry the cleaned surfaces using a clean lint-free single-use cloth.

There are a lot of techniques that can be employed in body arts. The commonest technique is painting. It involves the application of the paint, dye or pigment by the use of brush. After drawing the sketch or layout of the design on the skin surface, brush is used to apply the paint on the body surface. Printing, whereby designs are sometimes printed on the body surface is also used. Sometimes papers with permissible ink are transferred onto the body surface. Laser printers are also used to transfer computerized designs onto the surfaces of skin. Paint can be dabbed on the body surface using sponge or foam to transfer designs onto skin surfaces. Sometimes, the ink or paint can be spread over the surface of the skin to create the design or impression on the surface of the skin.

Other techniques include incision, thus, cutting into the surface of the skin to create a design. This is used in scarification and some forms of tattooing. The interlocking of the hair strands to form decorative forms referred to as braiding or plaiting falls under body arts.

Body art is gaining much fame today in the art industry. Artists must be weary of the health hazards in the use of tools, materials and instruments. They must endeavor to keep healthy practices while engaging in this interesting form of artistic expression.

If you want interesting information on visual art education, history of art click the link below:

Protect Your Computer From Being Hacked!

The thought of people being concerned that NSA is listing and monitoring their activities is a hysterically funny concept to me. Whatever you think of Edward Snowden, know that he is a day late and a dollar short. Most of these very same people that worry about the NSA, have a "Tracebook", Twitter, Instagram or a half a dozen other social media accounts that should be significantly reducing the NSA operating budget. In fact, let's just disband the NSA and hire Google! It seems that most of us have no issue publicly posting our most intimate details on Facebook including everything short of our Social Security numbers. Posting our current location and "checking in" so that the entire planet knows not only where we are, but what we are doing seems to be an absolutely essential public service and should also include pictures of the meal I am about to eat. How many of these same individuals are aware that every picture posted contains Meta Data that also memorializes the GPS co-ordinates and the camera type used to take the picture? I know you want to share picture of the family, but do you really want ISIS to know exactly where they live?

As everyone is so willing to publicly disclose these personal details, it explains why so many remain ignorant of the data mining that goes on that you do not knowingly consent to. I assume we all know that Google is in the business of selling digital user profiles to advertisers? Every type an email to a friend about planning a trip to the Italy only to find your inbox now populated with travel agency "hot deals"? If your email does not fill up with travel deals to the Italy, you can bet your internet browser will now display a travel agency advertisements, "learn to speak Italian" and top Italian Restaurants on every page you view fin! Now ask me what we think about using Google Docs! We suggest that you consider DoNotTrackme extensions to your Chrome and Firefox browsers. We also recommend that you install "self-destructing cookies" and watch how many cookies are exchanged with your browser each use. Remember, we really don't need your username and password, we need your cookies all of which are transmitted in clear text over that Starbucks wireless you have been using! All available using FireSheep!

Now if this is a vulnerability that effects individuals, what vulnerability effects enterprise level environments? Forget the notoriously leaking Windows Operating system and your hopelessly porous laptop, in the wake of the 55 Million credit card numbers stolen from Home Depot and the 45 million stolen from Target, we now have to worry about the credit card machines at the checkout counter. Actually the TJ Maxx heist was in many ways much larger! You might be considering how did the hackers get through the Firewall? As we have pointed out before, most computer network security exploitations are not executed through the firewall, they are executed by "social engineering" with the assistance of an ignorant employee or paid hit man. It is suspect that at least one of the above break ins was assisted by a third party trusted partner like the heating and air conditioning service company. Nothing like a starving janitorial night service crew to earn a few extra bucks plugging a USB device into any desktop computer releasing a new and improved malware version of BlackPOS! Most of these stolen credit card numbers can be purchase here or on the Darknet using a Tor browser to reach silk road type websites.

It seems you can't turn on an electronic device today without it alerting you that a software update is available for download. From the TV set, to the mobile phone, tablet and now even your car, all are subject to software updates. Do you even question what is being downloaded to your device when you do a software update? You just assume you are connecting with Apple, Amazon or Samsung? What if some evil doer was really just spoofing a software update and you just willingly downloaded a super basket of spy goodies that turn on your phone camera, activate your microphone and email snapshots to back to the mother ship. NSA, are you kidding? You would never know if it was your spouse, or employer would you? Yet millions of people do this without care, day after day and think nothing more about it. If you want to be tracked everywhere you go, risk having your most intimate communications published (just ask Jenifer Lawrence and the other celebrity Nude hack victims) just carry your Smartphone with you at all times!

Cyber-crime, next to the Ebola virus and violent terrorism is the single most economically destructive phenomenon to threaten the American way of life since the Cuban missile crisis. Yet the average business owner winces at the cost of engaging a computer network security audit and thinks that penetration testing is lovemaking foreplay. When the IT team asks for a Firewall upgrade or an increase in budget to cover a subscription to virus, spam and bot net filtering they somehow can't justify the added expense. Educating your employees on the safe use of the Internet over WiFi should be part of the healthcare preventive medicine program, but most business will ignore "social engineering" vulnerabilities until a major data thief publicly embarrasses them.

Earrings as Art

We like to decorate our ears. Try to forget that you had your ears pierced in a mall just as soon as you could talk your mother into letting you do it. Try to forget that you have given away as gifts more earrings than there are margaritas in Cabo. Consider from the perspective of an alien visiting our planet for the first time:

"They decorate their auditory receptacles with small bits of shiny metal and colorful rocks."

In our fast-paced modern cultures our ears provide one of the easiest and most prominent body parts to adorn. We express ourselves, our moods, our attitudes through the jewelry we affix to our ears.

Earrings have been around forever. Well, ok, as near as we can tell, a really really long time. The oldest known earrings are the Lunate earrings. The Lunate earrings were excavated in Ur in Mesopotamia, what is now Iraq (of all places). These gold crescent hoops are approximately 4,500 years old. The earliest designs of earrings were hoops and pendants made of precious metals, most commonly gold, and sometimes bone.

The popularity of earrings rose and fell throughout the ages in direct relation to hairstyles. For example, the adornment of our ears fell out of favor during the Middle Ages. It was considered immoral for respectable married women to be seen in public with their heads uncovered. Then in the mid-1500's women began wearing their hair up, exposing their ears. Earrings resurged.

Today earrings thrive with as many different variations as there are people wearing them. We wear dangles of all sorts, hoops and posts and spirals and swirlies, made from all kinds of materials including silver and gold and sea shells, pearls and gems and glass beads. We wear earrings as art.

By Serene Chong, Eleworth

By Topher ZiCornell, Eleworth

Eleworth offers an increasingly wide selection of artistic, hand-made earrings.

When Serene isn't busy with coursework for her computer science master's degree, she's busy daydreaming about her next meal. As a Chinese-Malaysian in California, she loves to try new foods, and equally loves to try new jewelry. Serene is always looking for new ways to express cuteness, and jewelry is one of her favorite things to play with.

Integrated Services Digital Network - An Overview

Originally, analog telecommunication services, also known as a Plain Old Telephone System (POTS), were the only source of telecommunication worldwide, before the coming of age of ISDN. POTS was the originally acronym for Post Office Telephone System or Service, but changed when post offices stopped offering telephone services and it comprised mainly of copper wires which linked the subscriber's home to the central switch office. This type of telecommunication had its limitations. Long distance calls had to be routed through operators and switchboards, which made them highly unreliable and time consuming and there was also the issue of static inference known as line noise, which disturbed communication. ISDN stands for Integrated Services Digital Network and is a fully digital telephone line that can carry voice, image, video and digital network services. ISDN transceivers facilitate full fidelity and two-way communication between different locations. ISDN voice-overs are of excellent quality, extremely clear and free of background noise. As a user, you can feel assured knowing that your voice-overs will sound just as good as those recorded in your own studio. The benefits of using ISDN for internet connections is a lot greater compared to using the old telephone dial up service as an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The ISDN dial-up connection offers speeds equivalent to that of a broadband connection. There are a number of additional benefits of using ISDN connections, as follows: Multiple Devices In the past, you needed an individual phone line for each device, including service, fax, computers and video conferencing. All that has changed with the advent of ISDN, which comes with a host of functions, including: • Voice, data and video have no interference or noise, corrupting the quality of service, since data is sent via packets or groups • Simultaneous transfer of services is possible with the same ISDN line, such as making calls, receiving fax and connecting to the internet all at once • Each service has a signal which works with the ISDN network to ensure there is more history and fewer errors with multiple connection. Speed Having multiple digital channels means you can compress all channels and come up with bandwidths of up to 128 Kb/s. This is due to the 2 B-channels, each 64 Kb/s respectively. It allows you to accomplish a lot of things which were previously unavailable on normal modems, including: • Faster, direct connections, with no dialing issues and downtime • Video conferencing and streaming without disruptions • Video conferencing with multiple recipients • Uninterrupted gaming due to faster connections

What Is a PRI Line, What Are the Advantages and Limitations of PRI Circuits?

In an ISDN system, there are two types of services: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). While the first one is installed at home or small business organizations, the later one is for large organizations which have their own telephone exchange systems. There are number of B-channels and D-channels in the system which carries data, video, voice with several control and signaling information. But, what is Primary Rate Interface and how does it work?

What is PRI Line?

The Primary Rate Interface comprises of a 64 Kbps D-channels and 23 Kbps B-channels. Here, it uses T-1 line. It also consists of one D-channel and 30 Kbps B-channel, which use an E1 line. If a user accesses the Primary Rate Interface on a T-1 line, he can get internet speed up to 1.544 Mbps. On the other hand, an E1 line user can get services up to Mbps. PRI utilizes Q.931 protocol over D-channel.

There are some countries where this system is carried on a T-carrier system line while E-carrier line is available worldwide. The users of the system are directly connected with the telephone company's central office.

Advantages of PRI Circuits

1. The service provider gives almost 500 numbers for each line. Therefore, it becomes easier for the outsiders to call the extension straight without going through the PBX Auto-attendant.

2. Through a PRI line, it is possible to have voice and data access. There are also some service providers which offer free data transmission for certain period of time.

3. Call hunting is also easy with a Primary Rate system. But for the analog trunks, the service provider needs to extend the facility and also include additional cost.

4. What are the other benefits of this system? It can be utilized for voice connectivity, video conferencing, data connectivity, faxing, etc. And all these can be done simultaneously.

5. This circuit is anytime better than the analog trunks as it is an end-to-end digital system.

6. Due to the fiber optic materials, the wire is far more redundant than analog trunks. Also, you will face less troubleshooting here than other systems.

7. Tapping your digital phone lines and listening to your conversation is almost impossible now.

8. You don't have to wait long to start a call here.

9. As there are several service providers who comes with flexible plans, this system also become economical for small companies.

Limitations of PRI Circuits

1. If the minimum rental is less than the average value of calls in an analog system, then installing PRI circuit is not that much economical.

2. If you have to make international calls, this system is not cost-effective. You can choose SIP or ITSP services at lesser rate to make such calls.

3. You have to pay for Inter branch communication if you install this line. If you install VOIP systems, you can make inter branch communication over internet at much lower cost.

4. You can buy Primary Rate lines only if you buy those from your EPABX vendor.

Prepaid phone cards


So Houston made the top ten in some ranking of the nation's best-mannered cities. I'm more than a little suspicious of these things - I mean, how do you decide who has good manners?

People are pretty polite here, at least compared to Washington - but then, that's like saying someone is pretty smart, compared with a rock. Top ten? Who knows.

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